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Pharmacokinetics

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The word Pharmacokinetics is derived from Greek words Pharmacon (drug) and kinein (to move). Thus Pharmacokinetics is the quantitative study of drug movement through and out of the body. To obtain the right effect with minimum risk of toxicity, the dose and mode of administration of the drug is determined by its pharmacokinetics. Its help […]

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Biotransformation

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Biotransformation means chemical change of a drug within a living organism. Drugs are foreign substances to the body. So body tries to get rid of them subjecting to various mechanisms. After absorption, drugs could undergo three possible fates: Excreted unchanged. Metabolized by enzymes. Spontaneously changed into other substances because of appropriate pH of body fluids. […]

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Once a drug has entered the bloodstream after absorption, the distribution of drug to various fluid compartments such as: a. Plasma. b. Interstitial fluid compartment (extracellular fluid space). c. Transcellular fluid compartment, e.g. fluid in the gastrointestinal tract, bronchi, CSF. d. Cellular fluid compartment (intracellular fluid compartment). Every drug is distributed throughout the tissues of […]

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Bioavailability

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Bioavailability of a drug means availability of biologically active drug. It is a determination of the amount or fraction of administered dose of the given dosage form that reaches the systemic circulation in the unchanged form. In other words, it is the rate at which and extent to which an active concentration of the drug […]

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Drug clearance or Kinetics of Elimination Time course of drug clearance that is absorption, distribution and elimination can be determined in mathematical terms. Such a determination is important and its clinical significance is: In understanding and planning drug regimes. In deciding drug dose schedules. In helping and supplementing to clinical monitoring and judgement. In fact […]

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Routes of drug administration may be either applied locally or administered systemically. It depends on nature of drug as well as patient. Factors, which govern the choice of routes of drug administration of a drug, are: Physical and chemical nature of the drug. Rate and extent of absorption of the drug from different routes. Site […]

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Sources of drugs

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Sources of drugs are of various types and these drugs can be obtained from various sources such as: 1. Animal, e.g. antitoxic sera, gonadotrophines, heparin, insulin and thyroid extract. 2. Drugs produced by genetic engineering (i.e. by DNA recombinant technology), e.g. human growth hormone and human insulin. 3. Mineral, e.g. zinc, aluminum hydroxide, liquid paraffin, […]

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