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Pharmacodynamics

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Pharmacodynamics is concerned with the actions, interactions and the mode of action of drugs. It deals with: Quantitative study of the biological and therapeutic effects of drugs,  The mechanism of action of a drug, Correlation of drug actions with the chemical structure. An effect on a tissue is the end result of an interaction between […]

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Mechanism of Drug Action is very important subject that every dentist needs to be aware of. Drugs produce their over effects by a variety of fundamental actions: Outside the cell mechanism of drug action a. Physical action: Colour may exert a psychological effect. Smell: Volatile oils like peppermint oil are used to mask the unpleasant […]

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Principles of Drug Actionare important to be understood. Drugs do not create new functions to any system, cell or organ. They can only modify the inherent functions. Principles of Drug Action shows that they produce only a quantitative and not a qualitative change in the functions of the target organ. The basic types of drug […]

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Opioid Analgesics

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Opioid Analgesics: Pain (algesia) is an unpleasant, ill-defined subjective symptom. It is usually evoked by an external or internal noxious stimulus. The pain inducing endogenous substances are called algogenic agents. They are released during ischaemia, inflammation, tissue injury, and by thermal or mechanical stimuli. These algogenic agents are acetyicholine, histamine, kallidin, bradykinin and leukotrienes. Bradykinin […]

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Antiepileptics

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Epilepsy is a Greek word for seizures. It is a common chronic neurological problem. It affects about 0.5% of the population. In most of the patients, the etiology is unknown. It is characterized with brief episode of seizures which appear with or without loss of consciousness. An epileptic seizure is precipitated by high frequency electrical […]

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Peptic ulcer is a major health problem. It is a wound inside the stomach or duodenum. It occurs due to localized destruction of the inner wall (mucosa) of the stomach (gastric ulcer) pr the upper part of the small intestine (duodenal ulcer). It is usually associated with the hyperacidity. The causes of peptic ulcer are […]

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Nausea is a desire to vomit. It may or may not culminate in vomiting. Emesis or vomiting is a protective mechanism. It serves to eliminate harmful substances from the stomach and duodenum. Emesis is a coordinated act of medullary vomiting centre (VC) and the chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ), situated fri the area postrema in the […]

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Drugs for Diarrhea

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Frequent passage of liquid or semisolid stools is called diarrhea. This can be cured by using drugs for Diarrhea.It maybe accompanied by abdominal pain. It can be caused by enteric infection, food toxins, malnutrition, inflammation and drugs like reserpine, synthetic prostaglandins, metoclopramide, domperidon, cholinergic drugs, quinidine and purgatives. Dysentery is characterized by abdominal pain and […]

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Constipation is a condition in which the bowel is evacuated at a longer interval or with difficulty. Drugs for constipation can resolve this issue. Causes of constipation are: 1. Change of environment 2. Emotional tension 3. Disregard of the call to pass motion. 4. Disease or abnormality of gastrointestinal tract 5. Adverse effects of drugs […]

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Drug Interaction

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When two or more drugs are used simultaneously, there may occur drug interaction between them. Drug interaction may lead to: a. Enhancement of intended effect of one or both drugs b. Diminished effect of one or both drugs and c. An unintended and potentially harmful reaction Unfortunately harmful drug interaction are more numerous and the […]

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