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Anticholinergic Drugs selectively reduce or abolish the muscarinic receptor mediated effects of acetyicholine and parasympathetic stimulation. So Anticholinergic Drugs are also called antimuscarinic or parasympatholytic agents. Anticholinergic Drugs drugs inhibit the actions of endogenous acetylcholine and muscarinic agonists at muscarinic receptor sites in peripheral tissues and in the central nervous system. The actions of acetylcholine […]

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Cholinergic Agonists

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Acetyicholine is a physiological neurotransmitter which acts on both muscarinic and nicotinic receptors. It is not useful as a drug being non-specific and having short duration of action. So such compounds have been developed which are more selective and have longer duration of action than acetylcholine. Drugs, which combine with acetylcholine receptors and mimic the […]

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Autonomous nervous system (ANS) is divided into sympathetic (adrenergic) and parasympathetic (cholinergic) divisions. Autonomous nervous system maintains homeostasis by integrating with sensory, somatomotor, endocrinal, metabolic, immunological and emotional activities. The limbic system and hypothalamus coordinate autonomic reactions with emotions. Anteromedial and posterolateral nuclei of hypothalamus are associated with cholinergic and adrenergic activities respectively. Vital centres […]

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Parkinsonism

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Parkinsonismis characterized by rigidity, bradykinesia, tremors and postural instability. It is usually idiopathic but can also occur by a wide variety of reasons. It may have genetic background. Idiopathic disorder may be due to exposure to some unrecognized or neurotoxin or to the occurrence of oxidation reactions with the generation of free radicals. The normally […]

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Psychostimulants

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Psychostimulants: This group includes amphetamine, congeners of amphetamine and cocaine. They have no clinical utility. They are only drugs of abuse. Psychostimulants cause: (1) elevation of mood (euphoria); (2) a sense of increased self- esteem; (3) physical and mental well-being; (4) decreased appetite, and (5) sleep. Chronic use of Psychostimulants drugs may lead to reversible […]

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Tricyclic Antidepressant effect of these drugs depends on their effect on biogenic amine neurotransmitters: 1. Imipramine, clomipramine, amitriptyline and doxepin are Tricyclic Antidepressant. They block the amines norepinephrine (NE) or serotonin reuptake pumps and permit a longer sojourn of neurotransmitter at the receptor site. They also bind to c— adrenergic, histaminergic (H1) and cholinergic receptors […]

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Anxiolytics

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Anxiety may be due to minor mal adjustments in day to day life. Such individuals complain of ‘tension’ with vague symptoms without any obvious signs of illness. In fact they do not really need drug (Anxiolytics) therapy. In pathological anxiety, behavioural and mental functions are often severely impaired. So anxiety becomes excessive, inappropriate and it […]

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Psychopharmacological Agents, which are employed to treat mental or behavioural diseases (psychiatric illnesses), are called psychotropic drugs, psychotherapeutic agents or psychoactive agents. They can be divided into the following groups: 1. Antipsychotics (neuroleptics; major tranquilizers): They are used to treat patients of psychosis or schizophrenia. 2. Antianxiety drugs (anxiolytics; minor tranquilizer): These drugs treat anxiety […]

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NSAID

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The characteristic features of NSAID are: 1. NSAID are weak analgesics than narcotic analgesics. 2. Unlike narcotic (opioid) analgesics, NSAID do not induce central depressant and sedative activity, so they are called non- narcotic (non-opioid) analgesics. 3. Most of NSAID have additional anti- inflammatory and antipyretic effects. 4. NSAID do not produce physical dependence and […]

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Anti TNF Drugs

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Cytokines play a central part in the human immune response and therefore rheumatoid arthritis. Out of wide range of cytokines TNF-ct (tissue necrosing factor-alfa) appears to be at the heart of the inflammatory process in the joints of rheumatoid arthritis patients. Anti TNF Drugs: TNF-ct is produced by macrophages and activated T cells. It stimulates […]

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