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Haematinics

Haematinics – Anaemia is due to deficient numbers of circulating red blood cells or reduction in hemoglobin content per unit of blood volume. Important causes of anaemia are blood loss, nutritional deficiency or complex hereditary deficiencies. Aplastic anaemia occurs due to failure of bone marrow to produce red blood cells. Haematinics or antianaemics are the […]

Cardiac Glycosides – Some Points in Cardiac Glycosides for Dental Students are discussed in this article. No specific dental modifications are necessary for well-compensated patients with heart failure, unless the underlying causes for the heart failure require modifications. In uncompensated heart failure, it is important to enquire about the patient’s ability to be placed in […]

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Antianginal Drugs

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Antianginal Drugs – Several considerations need to be addressed when treating dental patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) to prevent recurrence of angina or infarction by giving them antianginal drugs. The determination of vital signs such as blood pressure, pulse rate and rhythm prior to dental care is essential. Patients with CAD are at increased […]

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Antihypertensive drugs – Clinically hypertension is persistently raised arterial pressure which is primarily due to increased vascular resistance in the systemic circulation. In due course of time, heart undergoes hypertrophy and subsequently failure because it has to work against a permanently increased after load. If the condition remains untreated and uncontrolled for a long period, […]

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Vasodilators

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Smooth muscle relaxants act as Vasodilators- These drugs act directly and dilate the blood vessels. Due to this, there occurs fall in blood pressure. Their action is independent of the innervations of the vascular smooth muscle and is not mediated by adrenergic, cholinergic or histaminergic receptors. Hydralazine, indaparnide and xipamide are effective orally whereas sodium […]

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Skeletal Muscle Relaxants reduce muscle tone and/or cause paralysis. To achieve this, Skeletal Muscle Relaxants may act peripherally at the neuromuscular junction/muscle fiber itself or centrally in the cerebrospinal axis. Drugs, that block transmission of impulses at the skeletal neuromuscular junction, are called neuromuscular blocking agents. These blockers act mainly at the post-junctional level. On […]

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Local Anesthetics

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Local anesthetics(LA) are drugs which have following features: 1. Used for topical application or local injection. 2. Cause reversible loss of sensory perception in a restricted area of the body. 3. Prevent generation and propagation of nerve action potential at all parts of the neuron where they come in contact, without causing any structural damage. […]

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Ganglionic Blockers

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Acetyicholine is the neurotransmitter in both sympathetic and parasympathetic ganglia. Transmission through autonomic Ganglionic is complex. Both types of cholinergic receptors are present at postganglionic neurone cell bodies. Acetylcholine, released from preganglionic fibres, produces a series of changes as follows: The primary event is that acetyicholine acts on postsynaptic nicotinic (N1) receptor and causes depolarization […]

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Adrenoceptor

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Adrenoceptor blocking agents or adrenoceptor antagonists are drugs that inhibit responses mediated by Adrenoceptor activation caused by epinephrine and related drugs. They also block (less completely) effects of adrenergic nerve stimulation. On the other hand, adrenergic neurone blocking drugs act on adrenergic neuronal membrane or contents and block (more completely) the effects of adrenergic nerve […]

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Adrenergic Agonists

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Drugs which produce effects similar to those of adrenergic nerve stimulation or injection of epinephrine are known as sympathomimetics or Adrenergic Agonists. Before considering Adrenergic Agonists drugs, an account of the physiology of adrenergic nerves would be helpful. Biosynthesis of Adrenergic Agonists: The varicosities (terminal swollen areas) of the adrenergic neurons are the sites of […]

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